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Site Surveys

A site survey is an inspection of an area where work is proposed, to gather information for a design or an estimate to complete the initial tasks required for an outdoor activity. It can determine a precise location, access, best orientation for the site and the location of obstacles. The type of site survey and the best practices required depend on the nature of the project.

Shiva Consultancy offers site survey which includes geotechnical investigations to obtain information on the physical properties of soil and rock beneath the site. A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the required material properties. Then follows a site investigation of soil, rock, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine their engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on which the engineering will take place. Investigations can include the assessment of the risk to humans, property and the environment from natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rock falls. A geotechnical investigation will include surface exploration and subsurface exploration of a site.


Soil Properties:

  • Unit Weight
  • Porosity
  • Void ratio
  • Permeability
  • Compressibility
  • Atterberg Limits
  • Liquid limit
  • Plastic limit
  • Shrinkage limit.


Laboratory tests:

  • A Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
  • Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP)
  • Cone Penetration Test (CPT)
  • CPTu - Piezocone Penetrometer.
  • SCPTu - Seismic Piezocone Penetrometer.
  • Full Flow Penetrometers - T-bar, Ball, and Plate.
  • Expansion Index test
  • Hydraulic conductivity tests
  • Oedometer test
  • Particle-size analysis
  • R-Value test
  • Soil compaction tests
  • Soil suction tests
  • Triaxial shear tests
  • Unconfined compression test
  • Water content
  • Vane shear test
  • Standard and modified proctor test as per IS: 2720.
  • Corrosion meter.
  • Rebound hammer.
  • Elastic resistively method and seismic method for bridge foundation resting on rock.


Geophysical exploration

It is used as geotechnical investigations to evaluate a site's behaviour during seismic event.

  • Crosshole method
  • Downhole method (with a seismic CPT or a substitute device)
  • Surface wave reflection or refraction
  • Suspension logging (also known as P-S logging or Oyo logging)
  • Spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW)
  • Modal Analysis of Surface waves (MASW)
  • Reflection microtremor (ReMi)



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